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Tripura, the land of History and Legends


TRIPUR JANASHIKSHA SAMITI: The fourth decade of the last century saw the 2nd world war, which had a large scale impact all over the world in all sphere of life of an individual. It had created a revolutionary impact in Tripura and in the minds of Tripuri people. The Tripuri people were reluctant to take education, rather would prefer to do agriculture and jhum cultivation. The parents would prefer to utilize their children in house hold work then sending in the school. Last king Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya was very keen to spread the education among the Tripuri people, he engaged retired British army officer, Mr. D.A.W. Brown, as in charge of Education in Tripura. He was also very much proactive for the spread of education of Tripuri people. During this time some educated Tripuri youths took the spread of education among Tripuri as mission. Fore runner among them were Sh. Dasarath Deb (Barma), Sh, Hemanta Debbarma, and Sh. Sudhnwa Debbarma, who formed an organization for the purpose. The organization was formed in the year 1945 AD, 1355 TE, 11th Paush, and named  TRIPUR JANASIKHSHA SAMITI. It established to over 480 non governmental primary schools, recruited volunteers teachers, school rooms solely donated or built by community. Mr. Brown was supportive for the said cause, and  he helped to established the schools.

TRIPUR SANGHA: This organization was formed in the year 1946 AD, at the instances of his highness Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya to spread the nationalism among Tripuri people. Some of the founding members were prince Durjay Kishore Debbarman, Brajalal kishore Debbarma, Thakur Jitendra Mohan Debbarma, Lalit Mohan Debbarma etc.

PRAJA MANDAL: This organization was formed by many renowned Tripuri youths like Prabhat Ray, Birchandra Debbarma, Banshi Thakur, Dhiren Krishna Debbarma and et al. They were very much keen on making Tripuri people a developed race, it ideology was fully based on nationalism, promoting Tripuri people heritages.

 TRIPURA RAJYA GANAMUKTI PARISHAD: This organization was formed against the torture of bureaucrats and police of Tripura, they asked the right to livelihood. The aim of the organization was to make people aware of their right, to live with dignity. Dasarath Debbarma,  was its founding president, Aghur Debbarma was its General Secretary, besides Sudhanwa Debbarma and Hemanta Debbarma. This organization later became part for communist party, and still in existence as an organization.

The history of Tripura between accession to India, 15th November 1949 to general election of India, 1952 was a dark period. There was literally law less ness and rule of torture prevailed on the people of Tripuri. Communist party took this opportunity of resistance by Tripuri people and sided with them to oppose the congress govt of center with were labeled as anti Tripuri interest party. During this time Hindu Bengali refugees of east Pakistan were rehabilitated in large scale in Tripura, which led to upside down change in population of Tripura. The original native Tripuri people were over night reduced to minority in their own land of fore fathers, who ruled this mythological historic land for five thousands years.

TRIPURA UPAJATI JUVA SAMITY: This change in racial ratio in Tripura had created resentments among the educated Tripuri youths. It had led them to introspect, to analyze and interpret the consequences and impact of refugees. The product of People Education Movement are then educated Tripuri youths, they have visualized the partition and refugee as bane for them, it had created a identity crisis and extinction of the thousand year old history, glory and heritages. Some of them then formed Tripuri people youth organization named TRIPURA UPAJATI JUVA SAMITY, its founder were Shyama Charan Tripura, Harinath Debbarma, and many more. The aim and objective was to restore the glory of Tripuri people, to get the illegally alienated lands back, to get education in mother tongue Tripuri, the get autonomous district for self rule etc.

 TRIPURA NATIONAL VOLUNTEERS: TNV was formed in the eighties by ultra nationalist Bijoy Kumar Rangkhal and some of his follower like Chuni Kaloi, Binanda Jamatia et el. Their main aim was to return back the illegal immigrants and refugees of east Pakistan. They fought armed struggle to get this aim met but latter surrendered under the agreement with central government under Rajiv Gandhi.

 ALL TRIPURA TIGERS FORCE: ATTF an ultra nationalist radical group demanding session and full independence of Tripura, a pre-merger condition of Tripura kingdom. It founders were Lalit Debbarma, Ranjit Debbarma etc, a section of them came into negotiation with Tripura government and surrendered before the government. But one section of them remained unconvinced and still active in most of the parts of Tripura as terrorist groups and attacking paramilitary forces and collecting ransom from public for their sustenance. The organization is banned as terrorist group in India and Tripura.

NATIONAL LIBERATION FRONT OF TRIPURA: NLFT is another ultra nationalist terrorist organization demanding secession from India. Its founders are Biswamohan Debbarma, Mantu Koloi, Nayan Basi jamatia Etc. The group got divided, because of involvement in religious conversion from the indigenous faith to foreign faith. One faction came into negotiation with state government of Tripura, and surrendered. The non surrendered faction is still active but its influence have decreased substantially. The organization is banned as terrorist by Government of India.




 1. Government of India have been making efforts to bring about a satisfactory settlement to the problem of tribals in Tripura by restoring peace and harmony in areas where disturbed conditions prevailed.

2. The Tripura National Volunteer (TNV), through their letter dated the 4 th May, 1988, addressed to the government of Tripura and signed by Shri Bijoy Kumar Hrangkhawl, stated that keeping in view the Prime Minister Shri Rajiv Gandhi's policy of Solution of problems through negotiations, TNV have decided to abjure violence, give up secessionist demand and to hold negotiations for a peaceful solution to all the problems of Tripura within the Constitution of India. The TNV also furnished its by-laws which conform to the laws in force. On the basis a series of discussions were held with representatives of TNV.

Deposit of Arms and Ammunition and ending of underground Activities by TNV:

3.1 The TNV undertakes to take all necessary steps to end under ground activities and to bring out all under-grounds of the TNV with their arms, ammunition and equipment within one month of signing of this Memorandum. Details for giving effect to this part of settlement will be worked out and implemented under the supervision of the Central Government. The TNV further undertakes to ensure that it does not resort to violence and to help in restoration of amity between different sections of the population.

Not to support any extremist Organization by TNV

3.2 The TNV undertakes not to extend any support to any other extremist groups by way of training. Supply of arms or providing protection or in any other manner.

Rehabilitation of Undergrounds:

3.3 Suitable steps will be taken for the resettlement and rehabilitation of TNV undergrounds coming over ground in the light of the schemes drawn up for the purpose.

Measures to prevent infiltration:

3.4 Stringent measures will be taken to prevent infiltration from across the border by strengthening arrangement on the border and construction of roads along vulnerable sections for better patrolling and vigil. Vigorous action against such in filtrators would also be taken under the law.

Reservation of Seats in the Tripura Legislative Assembly for Tribals:

3.5 With a view to satisfy the aspirations of tribals of Tripura for a greater share, legislative measures will be taken including those for the enactment of the Bill for the amendment of the Constitution. The Constitutional amendments shall provide that notwithstanding anything contained in the Constitution. the number of seats in the Legislative Assembly of Tripura reserved for Scheduled Tribes shall be such number of seats as bears to the total number of seats, a proportion not less than the number, as on the date of coming into force of the Constitutional amendment, of members belonging to the Scheduled Tribes in the existing Assembly bears to the total number of seats in the existing Assembly. The Representation of the People Act, 1950 shall also be amended to provide for reservation of 20 seats for the Scheduled Tribes in the Assembly of Tripura. However, the amendments shall not effect any representation in the existing Assembly of Tripura until its dissolution.

Restoration of alienated lands to tribals:

3.6 It was agreed that following measures will be taken: (i) Review of rejected applications for restoration of tribal land under the Tripura Land Revenue and Land Reforms Act, 1960 (ii) Effective implementation of the law for restoration: (iii) Stringent measures to prevent fresh alienation; (iv) Provision of soil conservation measures and irrigation facilities in tribal areas and (v) Strengthening of the Agricultural Credit System so as to provide for an appropriate agency with adequate tribal representation to ensure easy facilities for both consumption and operational credit to tribals.

Redrawing of the Boundaries of Autonomous District Council Area:

3.7 Tribal majority villages, which now fall outside the Autonomous District Council area and are contiguous to such area will be included in the Autonomous District and similarly placed non-tribal majority villages presently in the Autonomous District and on the periphery may be excluded.

Measures for Long Term Economic Development of Tripura:

3.8 Maximum emphasis will be placed on extensive and intensive skill-formation of the tribal youth of Tripura so as to improve their prospects of employment including self employment in various trades such as motor workshops, pharmacies, electronic goods, carpentry, tailoring, stationary weaving, rice and oil mills, general stores, fishery, poultry, piggery, horticulture, handloom and handicrafts.

3.9 Special intensive recruitment drives will be organized for police and par-military forces in Tripura with a view to enlisting as many tribal youth as possible.

3.10 All India Radio will increase the duration and content of their programmers in tribal languages or dialects of Tripura. Additional transmitting stations will be provided for coverage even of the remote areas of the State.

3.11 The demands relating to self employment of tribals, issue of permits for vehicles to tribals for commercial purposes, visits of tribal men and women to such places in the country as may be off value for the viewpoint of inspiration, training and experience in relevant fields will be considered sympathetically by the Government.

3.12 At least 2,500 jhumia families will be rehabilitated in 5 centers or more in accordance with model schemes based on agriculture, horticulture ding vegetable growing, anima husbandry, fisheries and plantations with views to weaning them away from jhum cultivation. The scheme would also provide for housing assistance.

3.13 In the Autonomous District Council area of Tripura, rice, salt and kerosene oil will be given at subsidized rates during lean months for a period of three years.

3.14 Conscious efforts will be made for effective implementation of the provisions of the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution in so far as it relates to Tripura.


Tripura State Government and ATTF accord 1993


This indenture made on this the twenty-third day of August. One thousand nine hundred and ninety three BETWEEN the All Tripura Tribal Force (hereinafter referred to as the ATTF) on the ONE PART and the Governor of Tripura (which expression shall unless excluded by or repugnant to the subject or context include his successors in office and assigns) on the OTHER PART

PREAMBLE: Where as the government of Tripura have been making concerned efforts to bring about an effective settlement of the problems of the tribal who are presently minority in Tripura an attempt have been made on a continuing basis to usher in peace and harmony in areas in which disturbed conditions have prevailed for long.


Whereas All Tripura Tribal Force have given a clear indication that they would like to give up the path of armed struggle and would like to resume a normal life and they have decided to abandon the path of violence and to seek solutions to their problems within the framework of the Constitution of India and, therefore, they have responded positively to the appeals made by the Government of Tripura to join the mainstream and to help in the cause of building a prosperous Tripura


Whereas on a series of discussions between the parties here to and based on such discussions it has been mutually agreed by and between the parties hereto that the FIRST ATTF shall give up the path of violence and surrender to the Other Party the Government of Tripura along with all their arms and ammunition ending their under ground activities and the Governor of Tripura will provide some economic package and financial benefits and facilities hereafter provided

2. (B). Action is taken against foreign Nationals: - Action would be taken in respect of sending back all Bangladesh foreign nationals who have come to Tripura after 25 th March, 1971 and are not in possession of valid documents authorizing their presence in Tripura.

(C) Restoration of alienated land: - Effective steps would be taken in items of the Tripura Land Revenue and Land Reform Act, 1960 for restoring land alienated by tribal.

(D) Inclusion of Tribal majority villages in ADC Area: - Tribal majority villages which now fall outside the ADC area and are contiguous to the ADC area, would be included in the TTAADC.

(E) Introduction of Inner line permit: - The case for introduction of an Inner-Line Permit system would be taken up with the government of India . The State Government will insist on the Movement of India to approve this demand.

(F) Village Police Force for the ADC: - The constitution of village Police Force under the administrative control of the TTAADC is acceptable in principle to the State Government and the State Government will take up with the Government of India for Constitutional amendment, if required, to fulfil this demand.

(G) Increase in the Number of Seats for Sch. Tribes Candidates in the TTAADC: - The demand for more representation of Scheduled Tribe Members in the Autonomous District Council is acceptable to the State Government in principle and efforts will be made amendment of the rules which deal with reservation of seats for Scheduled Tribe in order to increase the numbers of reserve seats to 25 (Twenty-five).

(H) Setting up of a Cultural Development center: - Upajati Sanskritik vikas kendra (Tribal Cultural development Centre) with arrangements for training would be set up in the TTAADC area.

(I) Improvement of KOKBORAK and other Tribal Languages: - A Bhasha commission would be setup for the improvement of Kok Borok and other Tribal Languages, Steps Would also taken for the introduction in phase of Kok Borak at Progressively higher levels of education.

(J) Preservation of Ujjanyanta Palace as historical Monument and shifting of Tripura Legislative Assembly. Respecting sentiments of all sections of the population, especially the tribal of Tripura, steps would be taken to contract a separate building for The Tripura Legislative Assembly and to retain the Ujjanyanta Palace as a Historical Monument .

(K) Renaming of the Village Rivers , Etc.: - Steps would be initiated to ensure that all villages and rivers which earlier had tribal names and which were subsequently renamed, are given their original tribal names.

(L) Jhumia re-settlement: - Area based for resettlement of jhumias would continue to be implemented in order to provide for a strong economic base for the jhumias of Tripura.

(M) Industrial Development in TTAADC: - All necessary steps would be taken to ensure the promotion of industrial activities in TTAADC areas.

(N) Secured accommodation and escort for Office Bearers: - The President, Vice-President, Convener and 4 (four) other members of the Executive Committee of the ATTF will be given secured accommodation subsequent to their surrender and they will also be given personal security guard for such period as may be decided by the Government. They will be provided with Police escort during their movement outside Agartala as and when required.

(O) Housing Facilities: - After surrender, ATTF personal shall be provided with a house with GCI sheet raffling with a floor area of 220 square feet for their accommodation as early as possible and the ATTF personal shall take part in constructing such houses, provided that the cost of each house shall not exceed Rs. 20,000/= (Rupees Twenty thousand.

(P) Drinking water Facilities:- Steps would be taken by the State Government to Provide Drinking water in the resettlement colonied set up by the Government to resettle the ATTF personal.

(Q) Government Employment or Economic Package: - All ATTF personal, on their surrender, will be provided with government employment according to their qualification or economic facilities as provided here in and till such Government imployment or economic facilities are given, each surrendered ATTF personal shall be paid subsistence allowance at the rate of Rs.500/= (Rupees five hundred) only per month, so, however, that the subsistence allowance shall not be paid beyond a period of 10 (ten) months.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF THE ATTF is being represented by

(I) shri Lalit Debbarma, President,ATTF,  
(2) Shri Ramcndra Reang, Vice-President, ATTF,
(3) Shri Rabindra Reang, General Secretary, ATTF,
(4) Shri Dilip Debbarma, Treasurer, ATTF,
and (6) Shri Santaram Reang Accountant, ATTF, and the Governor of Tripura being represented by Sri M. Damodaran, Chief Secretary to the Government of Tripura, have hereunto set their hand on the date, month and year as afore-mentioned.

   Signed on behalf of First
Party ATTF by-

1.       Sd/-Shri Lalit Deb barma)
President, ATTF.
2.       Sd/-Shri Ramendra Reang
Vice President, ATTF.
3.       Sd/-Shri Rabindra Reang
General Secretary, ATTF.
4.       Sd/-Shri Dilip Deb Barma
Treasurer, ATTF.
5.       S/d-Shri Santaram Reang
Accountant, ATTF .

   Signed for and behalf of the Governor of Tripura

Sd/-M. Damodaran
Chief Secretary
Government of Tripura

 In the presence of:-


(Shri Dasarath Deb)
Chief Minister, Tripura

(Shri Bidyanath Majumder)
Minister, PWD etc. Deptt, Tripura